Role of distinct NMDA receptor subtypes at central synapses. Google Scholar. 1992;49:1818. The induced genes encoded proteins with a variety of functions, including neurotransmitter regulation, BBB maintenance, and melatonin production. 2006;98:170713. 2009;72:20514. Nat Med. their effects on the human body are vastly different: - Non-ionizing Radiation Frequency range: 0.1 - 1013 Hz . Vecchio F, Babiloni C, Lizio R, Fallani FV, Blinowska K, Verrienti G, et al. Impairment of long-term potentiation induction is essential for the disruption of spatial memory after microwave exposure. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2015;91:55561. Int J Radiat Biol. The function of dendritic spines: devices subserving biochemical rather than electrical computation. Zhang et al. Reactive oxygen species act through p38 MAPK to limit the lifespan of hematopoietic stem cells. volume4, Articlenumber:29 (2017) Dasdag et al. 2005;360:6577. Am J Epidemiol. Lu M, Zhu J, Qian C, Wang G, Nie J, Tong J. 2013;17:711. Synaptic vesicles form in different parts of neurons and contain high concentrations of substances that are transferred from the neuron. Decreased expression of nuclear and mitochondrial DNA-encoded genes of oxidative phosphorylation in association neocortex in Alzheimer disease. The authors therefore proposed that synaptic conduction disorders are associated with damage to cognitive functions. The biological effects of RF energy are proportional to the rate of ener-gy absorption, and the level of absorption varies little with fre-quency. Standard devices used by military personnel that may pose electromagnetic hazards include radars and missile systems. After exposure to microwave irradiation (an average power density of 30mW/m2 for 5min/d on five days a week for two consecutive months), the expression of NR2B was decreased in rats, the level of Glu was increased in the hippocampus and cerebrospinal fluid, spatial memory ability was decreased among rats with the TT genotype, and there was no change in the CC type and TC type animals. The interaction of microwaves with matter other than metallic conductors will be to rotate molecules and produce heat as result of that molecular motion. 2011;174:211. Brain electrical activity originates from the membrane potential of the neuron itself and the fluctuation in membrane potential. Jeong J. EEG dynamics in patients with Alzheimer's disease. 1 of 41 Harmful effects of microwaves on living beings Oct. 04, 2015 4 likes 4,519 views Download Now Download to read offline Environment The presentation proves beyond any doubt, the harmful affects of microwaves and radio frequency waves on humans and other living beings Padmanabhan Krishnan Follow Dr. Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. Edelstyn N, Oldershaw A. Relationship between cognition function and hippocampus structure after long-term microwave exposure. 2 Researchers have been working. Wang et al. Wang et al. 2009;27:556572. 2006;398:2537. To investigate the effects of microwaves radiation on apoptotic activity, cell viability, and cell cycle progression, which can provide information about microwaves radiation effects on neural cells over the period from embryonic stages to infants. More data are available regarding opinions on potential health effects of exposure to electromagnetic fields [3]. Mosconi L, Tsui WH, Rusinek H, De Santi S, Li Y, Wang GJ, et al. 2004;23:20114. Fragopoulou AF, Samara A, Antonelou MH, Xanthopoulou A, Papadopoulou A, Vougas K, et al. Zhi, WJ., Wang, LF. Bioelectromagnetics. The results showed that at 6h, 1 d and 3 d after exposure, the groups in which the average power density was 10mW/cm2 or 50mW/cm2 displayed significant deficits in spatial learning and memory. Int J Radiat Biol. [99] used a microarray and quantitative real-time PCR to analyze the miRNA expression profile in the hippocampus on days 7 and 14 after irradiation with a microwave at 30mW/cm2. 2005;25:10190201. Vorobyov V, Janac B, Pesic V, Prolic Z. Wang et al. Cell Biochem Biophys. 2004;48:46624. Starting with a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) site, Wang et al. CAS Mobile phone use facilitates memory in male, but not female, subjects. Int J Epidemiol. 2005;130:591600. [82] exposed animals to 900MHz microwave radiation for 2h/d for 10months and removed the brain tissues. 2008;22:9927. [78] exposed differentiated astroglial cells that were cultured for 14days in vitro to either continuous 900MHz waves or 900MHz waves modulated in amplitude at 50Hz using a sinusoidal wave form and 100% modulation index for 5, 10, or 20min. In broadcasting, the sources of microwaves are mainly FM radio and TV broadcasting antennas, which produce frequencies ranging from 80 to 800MHz. 2017;326:291. Previous studies have shown that in unexposed control rats, hippocampal neurons are aligned in neat rows in which the edges are clear, nuclei are clear, nucleoli can be observed, and pyramidal cells do not exhibit obvious necrosis. Chronic microwave exposures were executed with 2.45GHz of either modulated (power density, 0.029mW/cm2; specific absorption rate, 0.019W/kg with a sinusoidal modulation of 400Hz) or non-modulated continuous sinusoidal wave (power density, 0.033mW/cm2; specific absorption rate, 0.023W/kg) for 2h daily for 1month. Clin Neurophysiol. Motawi TK, Darwish HA, Moustafa YM, Labib MM. 2015;148:150. Motawi et al. Numerous studies have shown that increased acetylcholine is related to promotion of the effect of glucose on memory [112,113,114]. Schz J, Jacobsen R, Olsen JH, Boice JD, McLaughlin JK, Johansen C. Cellular telephone use and cancer risk: update of a nationwide Danish cohort. The central nervous system, especially the hippocampus, is highly sensitive to microwave radiation [43, 44]. BOOTP and DHCP.ppt anik301. Ning et al. PubMedGoogle Scholar. [27] found that college students visual reaction times were significantly shorter after 10min of phone-induced microwave radiation. 2007;28:187380. Microwaves are widely used in households, industry, communications, and medical and military buildings, and they provide substantial contributions to the development of human society. Szmigielski S. Cancer risks related to low-level RF/MW exposures, including cell phones. Modulation of HSP response in SH-SY5Y cells following exposure to microwaves of a mobile phone. Google Scholar. However,. Recent advances in the effects of microwave radiation on brains. Exp Neurobiol. Abnormality of synaptic vesicular associated proteins in cerebral cortex and hippocampus after microwave exposure. Specifically, the Federal Communications . Xu S, Ning W, Xu Z, Zhou S, Chiang H, Luo J. Instead, the effects of exposure of hu-mans and other life forms must be deter-mined and used to set realistic permissi-ble exposure limits. The former is now recognized worldwide as a method for evaluating learning and memory, while the latter is viewed as more susceptible to other factors. It addresses the impact on developing head and brain tumours, other morbidity-related outcomes and summarizes the biological effects of RF and microwave radiation. Front Neurosci. 2004;155:3743. Calabr E, Magaz S. Inspections of mobile phone microwaves effects on proteins secondary structure by means of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Bioelectromagnetics. Article Antimicrob Agents Chemother. Neurobiol Learn Mem. PubMed The article's subject is the investigation of electromagnetic fields (EMF) of the microwave frequency band in a typical human living environment, especially in shielded areas. Trends Neurosci. Zhao L, Sun C, Xiong L, Yang Y, Gao Y, Wang L, et al. J Mol Neurosci. Cull-Candy SG, Leszkiewicz DN. Neurotoxicology. daily life. Moreover, the popularization of mobile phones has made them the main source of brain exposure to radiation. 2013;73:4737. Their answers to questionnaires showed that the workers suffered from symptoms including headaches, fatigue, stress and sleeplessness. Bioelectromagnetics. fMicrowave Radiation Comes From Many Sources, Including: Cell phones. We should ensure that we avoid excessive exposure to microwave radiation in daily life activities and use mobile phones appropriately despite information about its positive effects. To investigate the effects of 2.4GHz Wi-Fi radiation on multisensory integration in rats, a cross-modal visual-tactile object recognition (CMOR) task was performed by four variations of the spontaneous object recognition (SOR) test including the standard SOR, tactile SOR, visual SOR, and CMOR tests. 2007;96:218196. J Neuro. Digestive System: The unstable catabolism of microwaved foods alters their elemental food substances, causing disorders in the digestive system. Effect of 900 MHz radio frequency radiation on beta amyloid protein, protein carbonyl, and malondialdehyde in the brain. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated. However, the problem with these studies is that different parameters, such as the frequency, modulation, and power density of the radiation and the irradiation time, were used to evaluate microwave radiation between studies. 2015;51:15865. The authors detected the EEG within the frequency bands of 0.530.0Hz for 5 consecutive days. Mitochondrial lipid abnormality and electron transport chain impairment in mice lacking -synuclein. Microwaves are a form of electromagnetic. Behav Brain Res. Sage C, Carpenter D, Hardell L. Comments on SCENIHR: opinion on potential health effects of exposure to electromagnetic fields. In a report by the Poland Department of Microwave Safety, occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields was analyzed in the work environment of personnel of 204 devices divided into 5 groups (surface-to-air missile system radars, aircraft and helicopters, communication devices, surveillance and height finder radars, airport radars and radio navigation systems). The results were significant for the range from 12.518.0GHz with a service period greater than 10years. In a study investigating the influence of low-frequency microwave (450MHz) radiation on EEG, Hinrikus et al. Wang et al. Kwon MS, Vorobyev V, Knnl S, Laine M, Rinne JO, Toivonen T, et al. Biotechnol Biotechnol Equip. B. Cordless phones effect Cordless phone same worked like a mobile phone. Google Scholar. This classical method is often used to test learning and memory abilities after exposure to microwave radiation. The biological effects of microwave and RF are difficult to quantify, but one method, which in-volves the determination of the relation-ship between the body mass-averaged Behav Brain Res. Mobile phone use and risk of tumors: a meta-analysis. [20] divided the radar workers into three sets: control group (n=68), exposure group I (n=40, exposed to 812GHz) and exposure group II (n=58, working with radar at 12.518.0GHz). J Natl Cancer Inst. 2006;5:389. Trends Cell Biol. Cancer in radar technicians exposed to radiofrequency/microwave radiation: sentinel episodes. This damage plays a key role in the structural and functional changes that are accelerated by neuronal degeneration. Effect on human attention of exposure to the electromagnetic field emitted by mobile phones. Li H, Li C. Apoptosis gene expression and their relationship to mtDNA mutation in tumor tissues of gynecologic oncology patients. 2003;14:2436. 2008;169:3845. [39] exposed rats to microwaves (500 pps, pulse width=2s, and average whole body-specific absorption rate (SAR)=0.6W/kg) for an exposure duration of 45min, and a significant decline was observed in the rats performance, indicating that microwave radiation influenced their working memory. Among the variety of neurotransmitters, glutamate is the most abundant endogenous amino acid in the mammalian central nervous system. 2008;49:16370. The transduction of a nerve impulse and the postsynaptic potential produced by it result in synaptic transmission. Nicholson RM, Kusne Y, Nowak LA, LaFerla FM, Reiman EM, Valla J. Ellis CE, Murphy EJ, Mitchell DC, Golovko MY, Scaglia F, Barcel-Coblijn GC, et al. Melatonin and serotonin levels were estimated, which play important roles in the nervous system. Many studies have been made on the biological effects of microwave radiation. Int J Radiat Biol. But microwave refers to wavelengths in microns so the. More than 50% of miRNAs are found in cancer-associated regions of the genome or in fragile sites, suggesting that miRNAs also play important roles in the pathogenesis of neoplasias [96]. Regional changes in brain glucose metabolism reflect cognitive impairments in aged rats. 2003;11:346. A large number of studies have shown that microwave radiation can cause a series of adverse reactions in the central nervous system, including sleep disorders in addition to learning and memory impairments. Qutob et al. 2009;64:2314. Merola et al. Kumar M, Singh SP, Chaturvedi CM. Microwaving Food Leads to a Negative Impact on Human Physiology & the Heart. Singh S, Mani KV, Kapoor N. Effect of occupational EMF exposure from radar at two different frequency bands on plasma melatonin and serotonin levels. Exposure of rat brain to 915 MHz GSM microwaves induces changes in gene expression but not double stranded DNA breaks or effects on chromatin conformation. 2010;86:37683. Fragopoulou et al. Concurrently, the discovery that microwaves have positive biological effects has presented new challenges for research and applications in this field. It has been reported that microwave radiation can induce lipid peroxidation of cell membranes and produce apoptotic signals [74, 75]. Lee TM, Ho SM, Tsang LY, Yang SY, Li LS, Chan CC. Othman H, Ammari M, Sakly M, Abdelmelek H. Effects of prenatal exposure to WIFI signal (2.45 GHz) on postnatal development and behavior in rat: influence of maternal restraint. J Radiat Res (Tokyo). NR2B plays a key role in LTP and was decreased from the 3rd to the 18th month post-treatment, and long-term exposure to high doses of radiation may therefore damage cognitive functions. Neuroreport. Megha et al. 1999;75:44756. The role of microRNAs in cancer. Bioelectromagnetics. Among radar workers exposed to 1418GHz microwaves, the somatic symposium anxiety and insomnia, social dysfunction and severe depression were caused [19]. Bioelectromagnetics. Toxicol Sci. Protein synthesis is necessary for dendritic spine proliferation in adult brain slices. After studying these effects, Hertel concluded that microwaving food leads to food degeneration. PubMed 2002;57:2702. Dasdag S, Akdag MZ, Kizil G, Kizil M, Cakir DU, Yokus B. Effects of 902 MHz electromagnetic field emitted by cellular telephones on response times in humans. Statistically significant changes were detected in the EEG- bands of six individuals and in the 1 and 2 bands of four subjects in the higher SAR group. Calabr E, Condello S, Curr M, Ferlazzo N, Caccamo D, Magaz S, et al. It has been shown that neurons are sensitive to reductions in the availability of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), the main source of energy in mitochondria, which have been reported to be vulnerable to microwave radiation [118]. However, impaired learning and memory were only observed in males. Lymphatic Systems: Due to chemical alterations within food substances, malfunctions occur in the lymphatic system, causing a degeneration of the body's ability to . Hans Hertel, a Swiss food scientist, initiated the first tests on microwaved food and microwave cooking to determine how microwaves affect human physiology and the blood. Additionally, Larjabaara et al. Microwave irradiation affects radial-arm maze performance in the rat. Bioelectromagnetics. 2013;5:5500110. Google Scholar. Therefore, in this article, we reviewed recent studies that have explored the effects of microwave radiation on the brain, especially the hippocampus, including analyses of epidemiology, morphology, electroencephalograms, learning and memory abilities and the mechanisms underlying brain dysfunction. Int J Radiat Biol. Repeated exposure to low-level extremely low frequency-modulated microwaves affects cortex-hypothalamus interplay in freely moving rats: EEG study. 1 Microwave radiation may also lead to skin cancer/health problems when we are within the radius of a cell phone tower in a certain specified limited distance. Google Scholar. Behav Brain Res. Research continues on possible biological effects of exposure to RF/MW radiation from radios, cellular phones, the processing and cooking of foods, heat . The fields had an average power density of 0, 5, 10 or 50mW/cm2. pability of the body (thus, a thermal effect), whereas the standard of the U.S.S.R. and Poland are based upon the interaction of the microwave fields with the brain and central nervous system as measured by neurological or behavior effects. Xu et al. After exposure, the levels of 2 waves in the hypothalamus increased more than those in the cortex, leading to a significant reduction in the deviation of the two EGGs. EEG is often used as a tool to diagnose Alzheimers disease [48]. [85] found that protein levels were reduced in rat brains following microwave radiation, which may have been caused by the excessive consumption or a reduction of the synthesis of proteins, and reduced protein synthesis can be caused by the following processes: (1) excessive activation of RNA enzymes; (2) mRNA consumption or the formation and maturation of RNA enzymes. Human short-term exposure to electromagnetic fields emitted by mobile phones decreases computer-assisted visual reaction time. [40] also repeated the experiment only and found that radial-arm maze performance in rats remained unchanged. Does MW radiation affect gene expression, apoptotic level, and cell cycle progression of human sh-sy5y neuroblastoma cells? Bad impacts a microwave has on our daily lives. Annu Rev Physiol. Reactive oxygen species levels and DNA fragmentation on astrocytes in primary culture after acute exposure to low intensity microwave electromagnetic field. 2016;25:31827. Am J Epidemiol. However, most studies have not supported the conclusion that cell phones cause brain tumors [8,9,10,11,12]. Radiat Res. The above results indicate a positive biological effect of microwave radiation and present a challenge with regard to how people can benefit from microwave radiation. Moreover, the risk of developing Alzheimers disease is 3040% lower in people who use a mobile phone for more than 10years than in other individuals [35]. 2015;28:1324. Dasdag S, Akdag MZ, Aksen F, Bashan M, Buyukbayram H. Does 900 MHZ GSM mobile phone exposure affect rat brain? Therefore, the authors concluded that exposure to a radiofrequency of 900MHz might trigger the neoplastic process because it produces a relative increase in the number of potentially long-lived cells. 2007;34:146779. Article Krylova I, Dukhanin A, Il'in A, Kuznetsova EY, Balaeva N, Shimanovskii N, et al. Phot J. Using a ring resonator notch filter for optical carrier reduction and modulation depth enhancement in radio-over-fiber links. Campisi A, Gulino M, Acquaviva R, Bellia P, Raciti G, Grasso R, et al. 2006;165:63644. Functional plasticity is affected in other ways, including the abnormal release and uptake of brain amino acids such as choline and monoamine neurotransmitters, a decrease in excitatory postsynaptic potential amplitudes and spikes in long-term potentiating (LTP) in the medial perforated pathway (MPP) in the dentate gyrus (DG) [27]. Nature. Qiao S, Peng R, Yan H, Gao Y, Wang C, Wang S, et al. Aydin D, Feychting M, Schz J, Andersen TV, Poulsen AH, Prochazka M, et al. MicroRNAs in neuronal function and dysfunction. Studies have extensively explored the underlying mechanisms by which microwaves influence learning and memory functions, especially synaptic structures and functions, oxidative stress and apoptosis, protein synthesis, genes and individual susceptibility and energy metabolism. So foods which have high water content can be very easily cooked like fresh vegetables. Environ Toxicol Pharmacol. Privacy In the CNS, glutamic acid binds and plays physiological roles with the following two receptors: ionotropic glutamate and metabolic glutamate. Glucose is the main energy source and is closely related to brain neurotransmitters and cholesterol synthesis [106]. 2002;5:18995. Effect of microwave radiation on learning and memory. Positive results were obtained in Morris water maze tests that demonstrated that microwaves influenced learning and memory in rats. These results explain the genetic mechanisms by which microwave radiation induces damage to learning and memory. Behav Brain Res. millimeter, or equivalently. Frequency Fields (RF) and Microwave Radiation on human health" by the Scientific Committee on Toxicity, Ecotoxicity and the Environment (CSTEE) from 2001, with respect . 2015;91:30611. 2007;27:6024. Zhao et al. Xiong L, Sun CF, Zhang J, Gao YB, Wang LF, Zuo HY, et al. Sci Total Environ. Maternal exposure to Wi-Fi radio frequencies led to various adverse neurological effects in the offspring. This is a Health Evidence Network (HEN) synthesis report assessing the clinical effects of daily exposure to mobile phones in general populations. Identification of a novel rat nr2b subunit gene promoter region variant and its association with microwave-induced neuron impairment. The authors predicted the differential expression of genes associated with transcription, translation and receptor functions (in addition to brain-related and signaling pathway-related) using the iRDB, miRbase and miRanda databases.

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